Grandparents Use DNA Analysis to Prevent and Treat Inherited Diseases for Future Generations

Why is DNA Analysis important to me?

Knowing your family’s genetic history may someday save your life or that of someone you love. Based on state-of-the-art genetic technology, a unique DNA Profile can be generated for you to keep for years to come. DNA Storage for up to 25 years is available for future genetic testing, upon your request. What better gift can a loved one leave behind?

What role does DNA have in Funeral Service?

The purpose of this article is to familiarize Funeral Directors about DNA activities, and related areas. Realizing that this technology is what we as caregivers are used to discussing, is a field that is of concern to many of our clients and their families. The vast spectrum of DNA can give us insight on the value it can play in our community. In a series of articles, we would like to give you a basic knowledge about the different but related studies involving DNA.

It takes three generations to determine predisposition to most of the genetic inherited diseases / disorders. It is now known that families should store DNA for future use. Banking specimens containing DNA from the same Family provides invaluable information for the health of current and future offspring. We as Funeral Directors have an opportunity to make a Family aware that such a service is available. After burial, retrieving DNA can be expensive. Obtaining DNA after cremation is much more difficult. The success rate of recovering DNA within the first year of cremation is approximately 50%. Offering storage and or profiling DNA of the deceased, gives Funeral Directors a Unique opportunity to offer a Service that can have a lasting impact on those we serve. If you as a Funeral Director do not see the need for this service, it does not mean that families do not need this service. Statistics tell us that families place a tremendous amount of trust in their Funeral Director. This is because we care so deeply in what we do. Informing a Family of their options, while guiding them through the most difficult times in their life is a responsibility that a Funeral Director accepts and excels in.

It is our hope that Funeral Homes throughout the United States will contact us and give us their input as to the value of DNA in a Funeral service.

Why we firmly believe in what we do.

At the National Funeral Directors Association meeting in October 2001, we outlined all the reasons for the value of DNA storage such as paternity/inheritance, genealogy, missing persons, forensic issues; identification of hereditary disorders, congenital birth defects; predisposition to allergies, mental, metabolic, cardiovascular, bleeding/clotting disorders, genetic cancers, microbial diseases. The potential does not end with the above. Rapidly evolving technologies in cloning pets, stem cell/gene therapy are currently being done, all to improve the quality of life.

Recently we had four interesting success stories…

1. A 62-year-old female dies of complications resulting from Breast Cancer. The deceased women leave 2 daughters and 1 granddaughter. During a “Pre-Need Consultation”, the woman elected to have her DNA profiled and the sample banked.

2 years later; one of the daughters is diagnosed with the same Breast Cancer as the Mother. The second daughter has her DNA profiled and compared to the mothers. It is determined that the second daughter does not have the same genetic structure as the mother that would pre-dispose her to the cancer. However, the Granddaughters DNA is profiled and it is determined that she possesses the same genetic disorder as the Grandmother. Pharmacogenomics and gene therapy are begun to prevent the cancer in the granddaughter before it develops.

2. The mother of a Divorced son was interested in identifying the granddaughter’s father. Was he her husband were her son? We identified her son is the alleged father. This was a “Paternity” issue.

3. The three sons of the deceased lady came to request identification of their mothers remains between two occupants of a gravesite that had collapsed. She passed away seven years ago, so the atypical specimen sources were bone marrow and vertebrae. Procedures were laborious, but we identified their mother. Her remains can now be transferred to another site. This is “Profiling”.

4. A friend’s baby presented with what appeared to be a Bleeding tendency at 3 months of age. The baby was admitted to Children’s Hospital, Cincinnati, extensively treated but expired at age 8 months. An autopsy revealed universal capillary involvement (small blood vessels) by a clotting abnormality resulting in damaging complications in vital organs such as heart, liver and spleen. This leaves a Protein called von Willebrand factor and is coded by a Gene called ADAMSTS 13. The parents are currently being tested for “Mutations” in order to know who transmitted to the gene. The baby’s DNA is currently in storage it doesn’t matter who stores DNA in life and in death provided it is properly collected and stored because although it’s stable, it can be contaminated and it can disappear during purification; this complicates genetic testing. Before the advent of Pharmacogenomics, astute clinicians treating HIV patients relied on drug resistance testing to predict outcomes; complementary to resistance testing his current genotyping, which includes identifying mutations, associated with resistance. In the not-too-distant future, the combination of drug resistance testing and pharmacokinetic testing will provide a better idea of in-vivo relevance of resistance data. Stored DNA lasts forever; it will provide an endless source for multiple testing that will hopefully improve clinical outcomes.

Pharmacogenomics

The terms “Pharmacogenomics” and “Pharmacokinetics” are sometimes used interchangeably to describe the analysis of genes involved in drug response.

Pharmacogenomics is more inclusive; it refers not only to the effects of individual genes, but also to complex interaction between genes from every part of the genome affecting drug response.

Pharmacogenomics is an aid to diagnosis and prognosis. Routine diagnosis is not always straightforward. A patient does not always come with textbook type symptoms of the disease. In some cases, a single gene variation has been shown to be responsible for disease, and a Genetic test for this scan confirms the diagnosis as in cystic fibrosis and Huntington’s disease. Sometimes more than one gene is involved, such as to Breast Cancer genes, Alzheimer’s Disease genes, and susceptibility to Migraine genes. The most likely publicly visible contribution of Pharmacogenomics to improved health care would be delivery of a number of drugs coupled to diagnostic tests based on genetic markers for head and neck, pancreatic cancers, and solid tumors.

Pharmacogenomics classifies patients into responders and non-responders to particular therapeutic options. Breast cancers that over express a Protein for the herceptin genes are candidates for monoclonal antibody therapy. The cholesterol-lowering drug PRAVACHOL works according to the number of copies of the transfer protein gene. HIV Phenotyping is an important and practical adjunct to the treatment of AIDS.

Pharmacogenomics can save lives lost to adverse drug events, the 6th leading cause of death in the US. A blood test now enables physicians to tailor a certain drug dosage to their patient’s genetic profiles. However, the cause and effect association remains unknown. Implementation of rapid automated DNA genotyping capabilities still, over time, provides individual genotypes of patients. Clinical data that is properly collected and managed identifies patient subpopulations at risk for adverse events, while allowing others to continue to receive the benefits of pharmaceutical therapy.

Pharmacogenomics and Gene Therapy

Mutation is a change of DNA sequence leading to aberrant or absent expression of the corresponding protein. It is the mutation, not the gene that causes predisposition to disorder/disease. Polymorphism is the quality of existing in several different forms. Sequencing of parts of the genome has demonstrated that some of these polymorphisms are in genes whose functions are important in responses of individual patient to therapy. The pathologist will need to profile common polymorphisms in patients who are beginning therapy for common diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer and infections. The laboratory definition of the genotype/phenotype will determine the specific drug and doses suitable for him. This puts the pathologist in a more definitive position to determine appropriate therapy than traditional predictions of disease behavior based on morphology of lesions (microscopic patterns) or cultural characteristics of infectious organisms. The lab also monitors the success of gene therapy. After a gene is introduced, the tissue where the gene is inserted (i.e.: Transgenic Monkey or Mouse) must be active and should be monitored for normal expression of the introduced gene and normal structure and function of the gene product. The lab must also monitor the “integrating transfected genes” such that integration allows both normal gene expression and does not produce abnormal function or structure of the patient’s other genes. In summary, molecular pathology is permeating and penetrating, as was immunopathology 20 years ago. “Immunopathology” an example of which is vaccine therapy is nothing new, a German/Austrian vaccine “UKRAIN” is supposed to destroy cancer cells through APOPTOSOS (programmed cell death) without attacking healthy cells. The US now has “GLEEVAC” with identical results. It also has been proven that in breast cancers there are genetically divergent CLONES that account for different microscopic components resulting in different responses to therapy.

Future Direction

As the human genome Project continues to uncover important disease genes (especially those for common disorders) at an ever increasing rate and technologies for high-speed DNA sequencing and multiplex mutation detection continued to improve, we can anticipate diagnostic molecular genetics assuming a far more dominant role in public health and preventive medicine. The advance of DNA “CHIPS” containing thousands of probes may someday allow extensive genotyping and lifetime disease prediction for thousands of disorders from a single drop of blood. Also, a poster on Human Genome Landmarks in the US Department of Energy, identifies a whole gamut of diseases/disorders with the corresponding position of the defective gene! Against these promising advances will have to be weighed ethical issues, especially in the field of gene therapy. Whatever the ultimate balance reached, there’s no doubt that molecular genetics will be the driving force behind an ever greater proportion of evidence based medical practice in the 21st century and virtually every patient whether healthy or ill will feel the impact.

The impact of DNA storage on clinical practice
Evidence based medicine is the gold standard for the 21st century.

What do we do that contributes to the practice of this medicine? What specific examples and daily living indicate that storing DNA is a “Must”?

The event of 9/11 mainly profiling and identifying the deceased was laborious and expensive on federal funds despite which only approximately 2000 persons have been identified. One does not realize the importance of the death certificate without which burial cannot be accomplished until death occurs! Soldiers “missing in action” cannot be declared dead until their bodies are found and identified.

An article in USA Today concerned a “Mystery killer” that involved a young couple; studies failed to give a definitive answer despite autopsy and numerous laboratory tests. Since chances that the suspected disease that clinically presented to be contagious (plague) proved negative on repeated testing. Had DNA been stored, further testing may have led to the diagnosis and cause of death

A TV program about a Serial killer in Juarez Mexico led to more than 200 missing women and “no leads”. Profiling and storing of DNA when these women were newborns would have helped identify the remains that took months to surface. The women after being raped were doused with gasoline and burned! The problem is ongoing.

Although Chandra Levy was missing for a year before the body was found, DNA is stable, and after profiling samples from her remains she can now be laid to rest. Since degraded DNA is difficult to purify, tests on her remains are ongoing to hopefully identify the killer. The FBI in USA Today declared, “there still are no clues to the killer”. Samples are from her remains such as hair, teeth, bone; even old blood can still be stored and tested along with a Suspect’s samples until results are conclusive.

A complex disease such as Parkinson’s disease and the genes whose polymorphic forms can increase any person’s risk but not necessarily cause it is the second most common in a Neuron-degenerative disorder. Parkinson’s disease has neither a Polygenic (multiple genes) or multifactoral (genes and environment) cause. Over the past few years, debate has occurred between Parkinson’s disease having a Genetic component or is just secondary to environmental influences. To evaluate the possible genetic component, open quote gene mapping” is the way to go. The availability of data from the Human Genome Project is opening new possibilities in studying common diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. The multitude of molecular techniques and statistical tools applied to this data now allows us to potentially move medicine from a “reactive” discipline to one that can prevent disease. However, once found, how these “susceptibility genes” will be used in the future remains to be seen.

A newborn (the 3rd child) was diagnosed to have a “Rare protein allergy”. Surgery was successful the baby is now seven years of age and healthy. Two other siblings are healthy. Storing this baby’s DNA would have enabled testing of future siblings for mutations related to this rare congenital predisposition to allergies.

At three months of age a Baby presented with a Bleeding disorder; she was admitted, traded and died at the Children’s Hospital in Cincinnati. The baby’s profile showed a defective ADAMSTS 13 gene. The parents are being tested for this “mutation” and the baby’s blood, buccal smears, and hairs are stored.

Will everyone be gene type early in life to prevent disease that they are at risk for? How will this affect employment/applications for competitive educational opportunities? Wolf farm code genetic genotyping be routine to determine patients with the risk for side effects or variability in efficacy? If the patient refuses typing will third-party payers is still pay for medications and/or treatment? Someday mandatory DNA storage and testing in life and death will enhance the quality of life and improve clinical outcomes because increasing knowledge of genetic variations sheds light on the role of genetic and environmental factors and disease susceptibility, aggression and therapeutic response.

Specialists can now screen eggs for the faulty gene that closes early onset Alzheimer’s disease, enabling women who carry their rare disorder to avoid passing it on to their children.

FDA approved GLEEVEC has been very effective in chronic myelogenous leukemia and rare (stromal) stomach cancers; causes of relapse do so because they have developed mutations that alter GLEEVEC’s target site in the leukemic cells, a Phenomenon well known to infectious disease clinicians. Just as microbes developing drug resistance mutations, so do cancer cells.

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Genetic Engineering – The Technology of 21st Century

Genetic engineering today is no longer a new term for the world. Every day in the newspapers, televisions, magazines the new inventions of genetic engineering are noticed. Genetic engineering may be described as the practice that manipulates organism’s genes in order to produce a desired outcome. Other techniques that fall under this category are: recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification (GM) and gene splicing.

HISTORY

The roots of genetic engineering are connected to the ancient times. The Bible also throws some light on genetic engineering where selective breeding has been mentioned. Modern genetic engineering began in 1973 when Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen used enzymes to cut a bacteria plasmid and inserted another strand of DNA in the gap created. Both bits of DNA were taken from the same type of bacteria. This step became the milestone in the history of genetic engineering. Recently in 1990, a young child with an extremely poor immune system received genetic therapy in which some of her white blood cells were genetically manipulated and re-introduced into her bloodstream so that her immune system may work properly.

PROMISE

Genetic engineers hope that with enough knowledge and experimentation, it will be possible in the future to create “made-to-order” organisms. This will lead to new innovations, possibly including custom bacteria to clean up chemical spills, or fruit trees that bear different kinds of fruit in different seasons. In this way new type of organisms as well as plants can be developed.

PROCEDURE

Genetic engineering requires three elements: the gene to be transferred, a host cell into which the gene is inserted, and a vector to bring about the transfer. First of all, the necessary genes to be manipulated have to be ‘isolated’ from the main DNA helix. Then, the genes are ‘inserted’ into a transfer medium such as the plasmid. Third, the transfer medium (i.e., plasmid) is inserted into the organism intended to be modified. Next step is the element transformation whereby several different methods including DNA guns, bacterial transformation, and viral insertion can be used to apply the transfer medium to the new organism. Finally, a stage of separation occurs, where the genetically modified organism (GMO) is isolated from other organisms which have not been successfully modified.

APPLICATIONS

Genetic engineering has affected every field of life whether it is agriculture, food and processing industry, other commercial industries etc. we will discuss them one by one.

1. Agriculture Applications

With the help of genetic engineering it would be possible to prepare clones of genetically manipulated plants and animals of agricultural importance having desirable characteristics. This would increase the nutritive value of plant and animal food. Genetic engineering could lead to the development of plants that would fix nitrogen directly from the atmosphere, rather than from fertilizers which are expensive. Creation of nitrogen fixing bacteria which can live in the roots of crop plants would make fertilization of fields unnecessary. Production of such self fertilizing food crops could bring about a new green revolution. Genetic engineering could create microorganisms which could be used for biological control of harmful pathogens, insect pests, etc.

2. Environmental Applications

Genetically modified microorganisms could be used for degradation of wastes, in sewage, oil spills, etc. Scientists of the General Electric Laboratories of New York have added plasmids to create strains of Pseudomonas that can break down a variety of hydrocarbons and is now used to clear oil spills. It can degrade 60% of the crude oil, while the four parents from which it was derived break down only a few compounds.

3. Industrial Applications

The industrial applications of recombinant DNA technology include the synthesis of substances of commercial importance in industry and pharmacy, improvement of existing fermentation processes, and the production of proteins from wastes.

4. Medicinal Applications

Among the medical applications of genetic engineering are the production of hormones, vaccines, interferon; enzymes, antibodies, antibiotics and vitamins, and in gene therapy for some hereditary diseases.

Hormones

The hormone insulin is currently produced commercially by extraction from the pancreas of cows and pigs. About 5% of the patients, however, suffer from allergic reactions to animal-produced insulin because of its slight difference in structure from human insulin. Human insulin genes have been implanted in bacteria which, therefore, become capable of synthesizing insulin. Bacterial insulin is identical to human insulin, since it is coded by human genes.

Vaccines

Injecting an animal with an inactivated virus stimulates it into making antibodies against viral proteins. These antibodies protect the animal against infection by the same virus by binding to the virus. Phagocytic cells then remove the virus. Vaccines are manufactured by growing the disease-producing organism in large amounts. This process is often dangerous or impossible. Moreover, there are difficulties in making the vaccine harmless.

Interferon

Interferons are virus induced proteins produced by cells infected with viruses. They appear to be the body’s first line of defence against viruses. The interferon response is much quicker than the antibody response. Interferons are anti-viral in action. One type of interferon can act. Against many different viruses, i.e. it is not virus specific. It is, however, species specific. Interferon from one organism does not give protection against viruses to cells of another organism. Interferon provides natural defence against such viral diseases as hepatitis and influenza. It also appears to be effective against certain types of cancer, especially cancer of the breast and lymph nodes. Natural interferon is collected from human blood cells and other tissues. It is produced in very small quantities.

Enzymes

The enzyme urokinase, which is used to dissolve blood clots, has been produced by genetically engineered microorganisms.

Antibodies

One of the aims of genetic engineering is the production of hybridomas. These are long lived cells that can produce antibodies for use against disease.

5. Gene therapy for treating hereditary diseases

The earlier gene transplantation experiments were concerned with trans¬planting genes in vitro into isolated cells or into bacteria. Gene transplantation experiments have now been extended to living animals.

6. In Understanding of Biological Processes

Genetic engineering techniques have been used for acquiring basic knowledge about – biological processes like gene structure and expression, chromosome mapping, cell differentiation and the integration of viral genomes. This could lead to a better under¬standing of the genetics of plants and animals, and ultimately of humans.

7. Human Applications

One of the most exciting potential applications of genetic engineering involves the treatment of genetic disorders. Medical scientists now know of about 3,000 disorders that arise because of errors in an individual’s DNA. Conditions such as sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington’s chorea, cystic fibrosis, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome are the result of the loss, mistaken insertion, or change of a single nitrogen base in a DNA molecule. Genetic engineering makes it possible for scientists to provide individuals who lack a certain gene with correct copies of that gene. The proposal for human cloning are still waiting to come on floor. Genetic engineering has benefited the couples who are infertile.

Safe guards of genetic engineering

The general safeguards for recombinant DNA research are outlined below:

1. Genes coding for the synthesis of toxins or antibiotics should not be introduced into bacteria without proper precautions
2. Genes of animals, animal viruses or tumour viruses should also not be introduced into bacteria without proper precautions.

3. Laboratory facilities should be equipped to reduce the’ possibility’ of escape of pathogenic microorganism by using microbial safety cabinets, hoods, negative pressure laboratories, special traps on drains lines and vacuum lines.
4. Use of microorganisms occupying special ecological niches such as hot springs and salt water should be encourage If such organisms escape they will not be able to survive.
5. Use of non-conjugative plasmids as plasmid cloning vectors is recommended as such plasmids are unable, to, promote their own transfer by conjugation.

Dangers of genetic engineering

Recombinant DNA research involves potential dangers. Genetic engineering could create dangerous new forms of life, either accidentally or deliberately. A host microorganism may acquire harmful characteristics as a result of insertion of foreign genes. If disease-carrying microorganisms formed as a result of genetic manipulation escaped from laboratories, they could cause a variety of diseases. For example, Streptococcus, a bacterium causing rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, strep throat and kidney disease, never acquired penicillin resistance in nature. If a plasmid carrying a gene for penicillin resistance is introduced into Streptococcus it would confer penicillin resistance on the bacterium. Penicillin would now become ineffective against the resistant organism.

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Improve Your Security to the Top With Integration of Biometric Technology and Devices

There is an always question of security whether it is your office, public place or any private sectors. In last decade of time we have seen so many terrorist attacks on civil and private sectors. 9/11 attacks on America and attacks in hotels in India are the ideal example for this. SO there is always question of batter security at sensitive entrance. So here my point is that the current security technology and methods do not work anymore.

And there is no end point of these kinds of attacks and we can say that they are UN stoppable. The organization associated with this kind of attacks is also updating their technology. So we have to improve and adore the technology that gives best fight and can be used to stop. We need batter technology and devices to fight against these kinds of terrorist activities and we all know that precaution is better than cure. So here we are going to talk about the technology which called biometric technology and the devices or tool sin which it can integrate to improve the security of premises.

Let me give you the simple introduction about biometric technology and detail information about the working procedure of this technology. The working of this depends on the some of the physiological and behavioral attributes of the human body. Physiological attributes like finger prints, eye retina, DNA and behavioral attributes like keystroke, signature and voice. When it comes to security, it uses above attributes to give you maximum identification of any personality.

Let me give you simple idea on how this system works and why this system is superior to other technology currently available in the market an d tools. As I said before, it relies on physiological and behavioral attribute of the human body. We can use this system as an authentication of particular personality to your sensitive entrance. It stores these attribute and when someone else tries to access the system then it scans its central database and then see if it find any proper matches or not. If it finds match it allows to access the system otherwise it starts alarm according to your predefined setting. So this way it uses this attributes as a password to access your premises. So this way it provides maximum level of security. So you can use plenty of security devices to integrate this system and can be used for different purpose. In next paragraph, I am explaining the tools which can use this system.

Doors with biometric access control

We are aware of door access control system which uses physical log card to access of particular places. With use of this technology you can control the access of particular entrance in your premises. So with this technology, you can use eye retina as an access control of particular personality at your sensitive doors. You can also use finger prints, voice, and other attributes foe authentication rather than eye retina.

Face recognition system

This is very popular and you will also find in some of the laptops with inbuilt face identification process to access the computer. This is a part of biometric technology.

Visitor management system

If you get tired with manual entry of your visitors in database and looking for an automated system to keep track of your visitors going in and out of your premises biometric system is the way to make you relax.

Security in public sectors

There is an always question of security at public sectors and generally this kind of activities also take place in public sectors like hotels, restaurants, shopping malls and schools. So if we can integrate this technology and biometric devices to this sector we can take one step ahead to fight against this kind of terrorist activities.

So this way we have seen that it delivers better level of security than other technology and there is no need of extra system or more cost to adopt with current operating system.

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Content Management Software Supports Bio Technology Firm

Since 1987, Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT) has been a major force in advancing biotechnology research both as a leading supplier of custom strands of DNA (also known as oligonucleotides) and a developer of innovative new biotechnologies.

Through offices in Coralville, IA (headquarters), Skokie, IL, San Diego, CA, Glasgow, Scotland, and Leuven, Belgium, IDT, an ISO 9001 company, serves a global network of more than 77,000 customers ranging from university labs to international pharmaceutical companies.

IDT processes orders for thousands of products a day with customers using the DNA strands IDT manufactures for:

o Diagnostic tests for genetic diseases, like breast cancer or cystic fibrosis
o Diagnostic tests for infectious diseases, like Hepatitis or AIDS
o Research to discover new drugs or treatments for a variety of diseases
o Producing safer and more plentiful agricultural products

“At one point, IDT relied heavily on paper to coordinate sales and production activities and drive workflow across our Front Office, Lab, Shipping, Invoicing, and Collection Teams,” said Bob Schafbuch, Assistant Vice President, Enterprise Application Group. “As orders escalated, our teams became overwhelmed with paper.”

In December 2001, IDT installed an electronic content management system designed to streamline IDT’s sales process and to make information more readily accessible. The company converted its hardcopy sales documents to electronic images that they uploaded into a server-hosted content management software system.

To support information access across multiple departments and office locations, IDT configured its content management system as a thin-client application, allowing IDT personnel to search for, retrieve and view documents over the company’s intranet. OCR (optical character recognition) was applied as documents were imaged – allowing IDT the convenience of conducting full-text searches on documents stored in the system. IDT also integrated its content management software with the company’s order entry system, capturing e-mails and faxes.

While the system was initially designed to support sales and order entry, IDT quickly realized the benefit of managing information in a less paper-intensive environment. IDT extended the use of its ECM system to additional departments including: training, purchasing, material control and human resources.

“As we’ve reduce our reliance on paper-based processes, we have continued to achieve greater efficiencies with our internal processes,” Schafbuch says. “We are processing and storing less paper and sharing more information. Best of all, we have empowered our workforce with broader access to the information they need to perform their job functions.”

Nancy Hallowell is director of marketing and customer support for D2Xchange. a full-service provider of electronic data and document management solutions to capture, manage, retrieve and distribute information more effectively and securely.

D2Xchange offers the following services, which are commonly referred to as “paperless office solutions:”
• D2Xchange operates a scanning bureau to convert paper documents to electronic PDF or TIF images.
• D2Xchange provides data archiving services tailored to capturing payroll data and reports.
• D2Xchange also installs and supports content management software to create a secure, online or server-hosted repository for electronic documents.

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Easy Ways To Do Laptop Data Recovery In Perth

As electronic storage devices get cheaper, we are increasingly becoming dependent on them for data storage. If we hold on to our memory cards and flash drives for too long without transferring the files to a secondary storage device we might accidentally erase them or the devices might get corrupted. Also our laptop might start malfunctioning due to a logical damage to the operating system and the data in its hard disk becomes inaccessible to us. Don’t panic! Here we are going to discuss about easy ways to do laptop data recovery in Perth.

Data recovery is the process of retrieving impassable data from damaged or debased secondary storage devices and removable files that cannot accessed in a traditional way. There is USB flash drive data recovery, external or internal hard disk drive data recovery, CDs and DVDs data recovery etc. This scenario evolves when there is an operating system failure, malfunctioning of internal or external storage device and accidental damage or deletion of files. Data corruption occurs due to physical damage to the storage drive or logical damage in the file system which prevents access to the data. Mechanical or physical damage to the storage drive will cause at least some data loss and also logical failure in the drive. If it occurs then users will have to take help from professionals for data recovery.

Usually companies providing data recovery due to physical damage have class 100 dust free room so that it does not get settled on bare disk drives. Logical damage is a software level damage which occurs due to partition errors in the file system or if the data gets overwritten. Generally in case of physical damage, enterprises providing laptop data recovery in Perth, takes care of logical damage before hardware repair and recovery. Repairing physical damage to disk drives and also data recovery from it are costly but there are many companies providing better and cheap deals.

DIY laptop data recovery

For logical damage to storage drive, the data remains intact in the drive but becomes impassable which can be recovered following the steps given below

Step 1: Purchase a hard disk drive enclosure online. Make sure that you purchase an enclosure according to the specification of your corrupted laptop. The enclosure turns the corrupted hard disk drive into an external storage device connected using an USB cable.

Step 2: Use a working computer which will be compatible with the operating system of your old laptop. For e.g.: if your damaged laptop is windows, then use a computer having windows operating system. Though Linux can also read data from windows still it’s better to stick to similar operating system.

Step 3: Unscrew your old laptop and locate the hard drive which is of the size of a 3.5 inch floppy drive. You can also look for the location of hard drive of your laptop model online.

Step 4: Connect the disk enclosure’s connector plate with your hard drive connector interface. Insert the disk drive inside the connector and screw it shut for enclosing.

Step 5: The new drive will automatically open on the working computer when it will be connected with the USB cable. A notification will pop up for windows users or an icon appears for Mac users. If it is not recognized, eject it and plug it back to the computer. For non readable hard drives, you will need professional assistance.

Step 6: Once you can open your external drive on the working computer, explore it and restore the files on the working computer or use the computer as a transfer device to transfer the file into another external storage device.

Step 7: After recovery of files from the storage drive, close the window and eject the drive.

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